Received May 12; Accepted Aug We have also explored whether the perinatal peak of androgens, which participate in the sex differentiation of the CNS in rodents [ 47 ], may influence the subsequent inflammatory response of astrocytes to LPS.
However, in experimental human pain models using three types of pain assays heat, ischemia, and pressure pentazocine failed to produce any sex difference in analgesia Fillingim et al. Neuropsychiatry Clin. As such, increased ASM activity was previously described in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in ASMtg mice overexpressing ASM in the whole body [ 29 ] no other brain regions were tested in this studywhereas in ASMtg fb mice overexpressing ASM only in the forebrain [ 33 ], ASM activity was increased in multiple brain regions.
Liebsch G. In addition, our findings suggest that perinatal testosterone might be involved in the sexually dimorphic inflammatory response of astrocytes.
Sex Differences Are Endpoint-Dependent. Plasma phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin concentrations are associated with depression and anxiety symptoms in a Dutch family-based lipidomics study. Because of the use of an ordinal scale to measure abnormal postures we did not perform parametric statistical analysis on this data set.
Behavioral Procedures Abnormal Postures and Immobility. Astrocytes, one of the glial cell types of the central nervous system CNSare involved in a variety of functions under physiological conditions, including the control of brain blood flow and neuronal metabolism [ 12 ].
The male saline group showed a trend of higher stereotypy than the others, but it did not reach statistical significance Fig. PMID:
It has to be noted, however, that the expression of KOPR is only one of several mechanisms. In addition to the observed group differences, enzyme activities were also related to depression- and anxiety-like behavior within the groups.
Neural Transm. External link. Thus, the sex difference in behavioral effects of KOPR activation is endpoint-dependent.