The biology and evolution of mammalian Y chromosomes. Similarly, when task performance is explicitly matched between the sexes, neural sex differences persist for some tasks Jordan et al. Stumpf, H. Tahiliani M. Ohnishi, T. Mechanistically, the suppression and eventual elimination of recombination was possibly achieved by a series of local inversions .
It seems, then, that when all nonspatial components are removed from the object location task, the familiar male spatial advantage re-emerges. Escape from X Inactivation varies in mouse tissues. Women Q. Kukurba K.
We highlight key roles for genes with homologues present on both sex chromosomes, where the X-linked copy escapes X chromosome inactivation. Despite differentiate sex limited and sex influenced traits in North Vancouver largely negative conclusion, and despite the political zeitgeist, reports of sex differences in various aspects of memory, or in cognitive processes dependent upon memory, persisted.
A number of these X genes have Y homologues, which may or may not carry out the same function as the X copy also see next section. Cowan, N. Although we will focus primarily on human studies, in large part because much of this discussion will involve verbal and episodic memory, we also discuss evidence from animal work, and note where commonalities across species are observed.
Nature : — Sandstrom, N. Furthermore, the complex and multimodal nature of autobiographical memories makes it likely that multiple factors mediate sex differences, possibly independently of each other. Logie, R. They have further shown that when all objects are identical thus significantly reducing the effectiveness of a labeling strategy , and participants have only to identify the specific locations in which objects appear, men actually show a significant advantage.
A female advantage has also been observed for other measures of episodic verbal memory including paired-associate learning Youngjohn et al.