November, ; 82 4 : — Fertil Steril. In a analysis Sullins cstudies, which recruited samples of children in same-sex unions, showed that Finally, two studies conducted in Spain explored the socio-emotional functioning of children of same-sex parents. Continuously scaled predictor variables were mean-centered prior to forming interaction terms, and dichotomous predictors were dummy-coded.
Biblarz T. Accessed June 15, Adoptive gay father families: Parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. A predictive negative relation between supportive division of labor and child externalizing problems was identified while competition and dissatisfaction with child-care arrangement predicted positively offspring externalizing difficulties.
References American Psychological Association. No significant interactions between household type and family relationships, or household type and parenting stress, were found for any child outcomes. A study of primary school children in Australia Sarantakos compared the social and educational development of 58 children living in married families, 58 living with cohabiting heterosexuals, and 58 living in homosexual unions.
Heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male relationships: A comparison of couples in and We hope these strategies will inspire scholars to move the field forward in new and innovative ways. Related articles. She concluded: "Rather than family structure, available research on early child development indicates that family processes matter more to child outcomes.
Clinical experience would suggest that motherlessness, while not studied as extensively as fatherlessness, causes even greater damage to a child, because the role of the mother is so crucial in establishing a child's ability to trust and to feel safe in relationships. In the context of families headed by same-sex parents few investigations have explored the role of structural and contextual features in the socio-emotional development of their children.
Moreover, all the studies reviewed presented relied on self-report as the main source of information, which may be affected the reliability of the data by producing subject biases e. Further research would need to implement assessments of individuals social functioning as the main indicator for socio-emotional development, instead.
The women whose average age in both groups was 29 with gay or bisexual fathers had difficulty with adult attachment issues in three areas: 1 they were less comfortable with closeness and intimacy; 2 they were less able to trust and depend on others; and 3 they experienced more anxiety in relationships compared to the women raised by heterosexual fathers and mothers.
By the time the NLLFS offspring had reached the age of 10 comparable to the mean age of children in the current study , no significant differences were found in relationship duration when separated NLLFS mothers were compared to their own heterosexual sisters who were divorced and also parents.